Web.UI vNext (preview build included in attached project packages) will include, among other things, a new feature of the CallBack control which will allow it to become extremely useful for integrating AJAX functionality in web applications build on Microsoft’s new ASP.NET MVC framework.
About Microsoft ASP.NET MVC
A few months ago, Microsoft announced a new, alternative framework for ASP.NET applications built around the model-view-controller
architecture pattern. Scott Guthrie blogged about it
and described in detail
how this framework operates. Though still in a preview stage, ASP.NET MVC has already generated a lot of buzz and interest, and promises to be an important factor for some types of web apps. However, ASP.NET MVC has no AJAX support out of the box.
About ComponentArt CallBack
ComponentArt CallBack is a relatively simple ASP.NET control which contains HTML content and allows it to be updated asynchronously via AJAX calls back to the server. In a typical web form, the request is sent back to the page of origin and is handled by the control itself, which raises an event, allowing the developer to compose the content to be sent to the client.
A new feature introduced to CallBack for the next version of Web.UI is the client-side loadUrl
method. This method allows the control to asynchronously call up any URL and display the content returned within its element on the page. This feature is useful for all sorts of situations, including rapid integration of partial AJAX updates in web applications built on Microsoft’s ASP.NET MVC framework.
ASP.NET MVC and ComponentArt CallBack
ASP.NET MVC request routing operates according to conventions for HTTP GET requests. Requests for pages are of the form /Controller/Action/Id
, and the logic of the application is built to follow this flow: the appropriate Controller accepts the request, and handles the requested action by performing the appropriate business logic (in conjunction with the Model) and passing resulting data to the appropriate View which is then rendered to the client.
This architecture is a complete departure from that of ASP.NET web forms, which is based on postbacks and persistence of control state. The traditional use of CallBack (by raising server-side events to handle a callback request) is no longer applicable. However, with the addition of the loadUrl method, CallBack fits perfectly into the ASP.NET MVC architecture and provides the easiest and most integrated way of performing partial AJAX updates in an ASP.NET MVC application.
How it Works
When designing functionality that is to be useful for ASP.NET MVC apps, we found that less is more. Since the MVC model forces us to drop most of the complexities of the ASP.NET web form life cycle, control state and server-side events, we are left with just the basics of HTTP. In this case, that is all we need, and it is also the best way to seamlessly integrate into the MVC way of doing things.
method causes CallBack’s content to be loaded from the given URL, which, of course, can follow MVC conventions. We are therefore able to have a CallBack control on an MVC View Page (say, CallBack1), get it rendered to the client, and from that point, only interact with it on the client side, to perform actions and load new content, with typical calls like these:
On the server, layout is organized as a standard ASPX View, with distinct parts encapsulated in ASCX views.
After the initial ASPX view is loaded, those parts of it which are encapsulated in ASCX views (and placed inside instances of ComponentArt CallBack) can be updated asynchronously.
Organizing content areas in ASCX views is the key component of our MVC AJAX solution.
The loadUrl method also takes an optional second parameter, POST data. If data needs to be sent that is not part of the URL (including the optional query string), it can be combined into a POST data string on the client (in the form "name1=value1&name2=value2") and passed to loadUrl. It will be available in the MVC controller as part of the Request.
To illustrate these ideas, I include two examples below. With these web application projects, I have tried to demonstrate how Web.UI controls can be used in the context of MVC, including how partial AJAX updates can be performed with the CallBack control while maintaining the full MVC pattern. There are two separate applications:
This ASP.NET MVC web application is an adaptation of a typical application dealing with hierarchical data, featuring ComponentArt Web.UI controls. The architecture of the web application uses simple one-time rendering of the controls, taking them out of the paradigm of web forms. Interaction with the controls causes full-page refreshes with appropriate MVC routing. Context data is passed in URL query parameters.
This ASP.NET MVC web application is a reworking of the above example which encapsulates autonomous areas of the UI into MVC User Control Views, which are in turn placed inside instances of ComponentArt CallBack, allowing them to be updated independently and asynchronously (see diagram 2). Most importantly, these partial updates are HTTP requests MVC User Control Views and are fully routed through MVC. They can be treated in the same way as any other MVC request, and application logic does not need to do anything special to allow for this asynchronous operation, nor indeed to be aware of it at all.
Though still in an early preview stage, ASP.NET MVC has attracted a lot of interest and shows a lot of promise to grow into an important web technology. However, as of yet, ASP.NET MVC has no built-in AJAX support. Despite its divorce from web forms, applications built on ASP.NET MVC can still utilize rich ComponentArt Web.UI controls, and use the CallBack control, in particular, to quickly and easily add AJAX functionality in a way that seamlessly fits into the MVC pattern.